West River (West Haven)
Drainage Basin: South Central Coast

1. About this Watershed

West River Slideshow
West River is the main stem of three subwatersheds that make up the West River Basin in south central Connecticut, the other subwatersheds being Wintergreen Brook and Sargent River. The entire watershed occupies 34.4 sq-mi in the towns of Prospect, Bethany, Hamden, Woodbridge, New Haven, and West Haven. [Figure 1.1] Headwaters for West River are generally considered to be at the base of Lake Bethany in Bethany, CT, while the basin for West River is Long Island Sound via New Haven Harbor in West Haven, CT.[1]

The rivers, streams, and brooks in West River Watershed make up approximately 100 miles of waterways. [Figure 1.2] The South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority maintains five lakes in West River Watershed with a total area of 0.66 sq-mi which have 2.7 billion gallons of drinking water readily available: Lake Bethany, Lake Watrous, Lake Chamberlain, Lake Dawson, and Lake Glen.[2] In addition, West River features several smaller ponds and wetland regions with significance to the overall watershed. Much of the wetland region is found below Konold’s Pond, particularly alongside and below West River Memorial Park, which runs along Ella Grasso Blvd. in New Haven.

The portions of West River above Konold’s Pond lie in suburban residential areas, surrounded by forest. A section of West River that includes Lake Watrous, Lake Dawson, Konold’s Pond, and Lake Wintergreen lie in close proximity to West Rock Ridge State Park. As shown in Figure 1.3, much of the eastern Wintergreen Brook subwatershed as well as the sections of West River below Konold’s Pond lie in heavily urbanized areas of Hamden, New Haven and West Haven.[3]

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1a. Map

2. Geology

Connecticut has been formed through a series of continental collisions, seabed crunching, and continental cracks. From 450 to 250 million years ago, during the Paleozoic Era, several continental plates separated by the Iapetos Ocean collided to form Pangaea and Connecticut was right in the middle. The collision of Avalonia and Proto-North America caused the Iapetos Ocean to crunch together; the intense heat and pressure converted seabed coral into limestone and marble, clays were changed into slate, and other seabed was metamorphosed into gneiss and schist. This crunching formed Connecticut’s Uplands, which make up much of central Connecticut.[4][5]

About 200 million years after Pangaea formed, tectonic processes reversed; Pangea cracked in many places and some continents split apart from the super-continent. The central valley of Connecticut was formed by a “Great Crack” in the Iapetos region that split the uplands into Eastern and Western.[Figure 2.1] The crustal region between the highlands was under strain from the crack, causing lava to flow above ground and over time highland erosion and sedimentation covered the area. Later, the Eastern Uplands began to slide away from the Western and the central lowlands dropped down and slid to the East. Lava and sediments that had layered horizontally on the surface were now pitched down to the east, exposing their western regions. Weathering removed some of the sedimentary rock, leaving behind great masses of igneous traprock like West Rock and East Rock in New Haven.[4][5][6]

Glaciers moved in around 24,000 years ago, scouring and flattening the bedrock and depositing large stones atop mountains. 18,000-13,000 years ago they retreated, leaving behind Connecticut’s water in deposits as lakes and ponds as well as larger bodies of water like Long Island Sound. The glaciers also acted as crustal bulldozers, combining minerals into a mixed till that has been deposited throughout much of Connecticut. Rivers such as West River cut their way through the tougher metamorphic rock and softer sedimentary rock and mixed till to find their way to Long Island Sound.[4][5]

As shown in Figure 2.2, at its Lake Bethany headwaters, West River lies on the downthrown side of a high angle fault, cutting its way along the elevation contours of medium- to dark-gray, medium- to fine-grained Weepawaug schist. As it meets Lake Watrous and Lake Dawson, West River finds itself bordered on the west by Weepawaug schist and on the east by softer reddish, poorly-sorted New Haven Arkose. Additionally, not far from the eastern banks of West River runs West Rock Ridge, a pitch of igneous West Rock dolerite which is a dark gray, orange- to brown-weathering rock similar in composition to basalt. Below Lake Dawson and throughout the smaller streams in the Wintergreen Brook subwatershed, West River continues through sedimentary Arkose and glacial till until it drains into Long Island Sound. Near Konold’s The drainage pattern of West River is closely related to composition and structure of the bedrock; however, the natural sweep and curve of West River has been altered by armoring downriver from Lake Dawson and by fill in parts of New Haven and West Haven. This fill was originally done to shape and dry up portions of the river, but recently has sunk to leave behind fresh water marsh lands in New Haven and West Haven.[6][7]

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3. Hydrology

The New Haven Water Company and then the Regional Water Authority collected precipitation data on several lakes that provided drinking water to the Greater New Haven Area. Table 3.1 is a copy of the original New Haven Water Company rain gauge readings for 1932; the water utilities continued to measure monthly and annual precipitation for West River until 1995. Historical rainfall data (1932-1995) for May through August from Lake Dawson in Woodbridge, the downriver-most reservoir in West River Watershed, can be found on Table 3.2. The mean rainfall for this period ranges from 3.62 to 4.13 inches and the mean annual precipitation is 47.86 inches. Maximum annual rainfall from 1932-1995 was 73.96 inches while minimum annual rainfall was 30.49 inches. The average annual precipitation data is consistent with historical data for the entire Connecticut coastal region. Figure 3.1 shows a graphical comparison of May through August rainfall on Lake Dawson to rainfall on Mount Carmel near Mill River in Hamden and to rainfall in the CT Coastal Region and CT Central Region. Historically, rainfall has been uniform throughout the state, with standard deviation across these regions ranging from 0.06 to 0.11 inches for monthly data and 0.54 inches for annual precipitation. It can be reasonably concluded that precipitation on West River is uniform from headwaters to basin.[8][9]

Discharge data for West River is generally unavailable. According to John Triana, Natural Resources Technician at the Regional Water Authority, when Lake Dawson is below spillway, the discharge is maintained at a rate of 0.139-2.780 cfs (cubic feet per second), but Mr. Triana states that “when it is spilling, the discharge is many times that amount. It would take a lot of effort to determine a monthly average flow since it is spilling more often than not.”[10]

The Connecticut Water Science Center (CWSC) in East Hartford, a division of the U.S. Geologic Survey, did measure discharge for four years in the 1980s. The location of record is at Whalley Avenue near Westville in New Haven and measurements were not regular. The down-side of irregular measurements is the inability to observe meaningful trends. As shown in Table 3.3, in the first series of measurements made by the CWSC, values were considerably higher than in all other measurements. According to Barbara Korzendorfer from CWSC, there is insufficient data as to why discharge readings for 1983-1984 are significantly higher than 1984-1987 measurements. The average discharge including all measurements is 45.9 cfs, while the average discharge without the first series is 14.1 cfs. A hypothetical runoff coefficient for Lake Dawson can be calculated using average annual rainfall (47.86 in/yr); the average discharge measured at Whalley Avenue (14.1 cfs); and the area of the Lake Dawson watershed (0.96 sq-mi). The runoff coefficient value of 0.417 indicates that approximately 41.7% of the water hitting Lake Dawson watershed from October of 1984 until September of 1987 ran off into West River and the remaining 58.3% of water was lost through evapotranspiration. This value is unreliable due to the unreliability of the discharge data. With more frequent and regular discharge measurements, there would be less uncertainty about the validity of the discharge data.[11]

The RWA maintains that its statewide reservoir system is at 99% capacity. Even if evapotranspiration is high, the RWA is still able to maintain discharge into West River. In addition, Konolds pond, the reflecting pool at West River Memorial Park, and overground water in marsh areas maintain the flow of West River.

Temperatures for the Connecticut Coastal region area have stayed consistent, the thirty year average has risen about 1 degree Fahrenheit since 1931. Figure 3.2 shows coastal and central Connecticut temperatures during the thirty-year period from 1931-1960 compared with temperatures from the same region during the thirty-year period from 1971-2000. In both regions the temperature has risen slightly. If the trend of rising temperatures continues it can be expected that evapotranspiration will increase, river and lake temperatures will rise, the effects of which will serve to alter the hydrology of West River Watershed.[9]

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4. History

Prior to the European settlers arriving, the New Haven region was inhabited by Quinnipiac and Pequot tribes. In 1638, John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton arrived to establish the colony that would become New Haven. They found few native inhabitants due to wars and epidemics and the region, with lowland salt marshes, was likely seen as a blessing to the early colonists. Other areas along the Connecticut coast were dense with forests, which the Europeans viewed as refuges of evil which hid savage men and wild beasts. Immediately, early colonists relied on harvesting salt hay for their livestock, which helped to convert the area to agricultural land. Through the 18th and 19th century the salt marsh areas around the Quinnipiac, Mill, and West Rivers were harvested for their salt hay. Unfortunately, the early soil was bad for crops, so New Haven farmers exported the salt hay and other livestock products. Continued fertilization with manure led to better agriculture and a rise in milk and horses as commodities.[12]

Until construction of the first upriver dams in the late 1800s, West River had a much higher flow, given its steady descent and narrow channeling through hard metamorphic schist. Around the time of the American War for Independence the first mills began to harness West River’s fast-moving water. Between 1776 and the 1860s, Woodbridge, Hamden, and New Haven saw numerous mills spring up along West River; gunpowder mills, grist mills, cotton mills, paper mills, and woolen mills were some of the most common types. For years afterwards, other businesses such as the A. Beecher and Sons Basket and Match Factory also thrived with water from the West River. Many of the original mill and factory sites have transferred ownership to companies that exist today.[13]

Throughout the 19th century, New Haven’s industrial economy grew as did its population. The new immigrants had little connection to the land and they wished to make it more like Europe, bringing English grasses and filling in the marshes. The city was under constant pressure to convert marshes to parks, dumps, industrial areas. In 1878 it was first discovered that mosquitoes spread disease and for years after, the city spent considerable effort trying to eradicate the insect. Knowing that salt marshes bred mosquitoes, 1889 New Haven mayor Henry peck created Edgewood Park, damning the wetlands as “breeders of disease.” Mayor Sargent acquired numerous marshes and pushed for filling the wetlands as the city’s industry and population continued to grow. In 1912, the Anti-Mosquito Committee was formed to raise money to drain and spray marshlands.[12]

Meanwhile, near the head of West River, the New Haven Water Company (NHWC) built Lake Watrous in 1888, with parts of the lake in Woodbridge and Bethany. Over the next twenty years, the NHWC constructed several more dams on the West River. The New Haven Water Company was a private utility formed in the 1849 to provide water to the people in the Greater New Haven area. Helped along during its initial building and operations by Eli Whitney, NHWC operated from 1862 until the 1970s. In 1974, after the passing of the federal Safe Drinking Water Act, NHWC attempted to generate capital for a filtration plant by selling over 60 percent of its 26,000 acres. The local communities and others throughout the state were in an uproar. With several New Haven area legislators, the people of Greater New Haven pressured state legislators to block the land sale and create the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority (RWA) in 1977. The RWA is a publicly-owned utility who has expanded its mission beyond supply and protection of water resources to include recreation and education. The Whitney Water Center at the base of Lake Whitney in New Haven teaches 10,000 children each year about the basics of drinking water science.[13][14][15]

Through much of the 1900s, the long battle of New Haven versus the marsh lands greatly affected West River. In 1920, tidal floodgates were installed near Route 1 to prevent salt water from infiltrating West River and helping to breed mosquitoes. What happened, though, is that freshwater marshes developed in place of salt marshes. And so New Haven continued to fill in the wetlands until in 1970 over sixty percent of wetlands in New Haven had been filled in favor of highways, airports, marinas, dumps, and parking. It was not until the 1950s that people began to appreciate the importance of wetlands for the area’s ecosystem. New Haven and West Haven wetlands are major bird sanctuaries and the estuarine environment is significant to the exchange of nutrients. Eventually the city began using alternative methods to reduce mosquitoes, such as predatory species like killfishes and topminnows. While the city is no longer filling in its marshlands, little is under way to restore any of the region to wetlands.[12]

In addition, prior to public ownership of the river itself, businesses redirected West River to suit their industrial needs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers spent much of the 1900s redirecting West River to suit industrial and flood control needs. In 1982 New Haven experienced the worst flooding on record, which prompted construction of a completely channelized area around Blake Street in Westville.

5. Human Use & Impact

From the very moment European settlers arrived in New Haven, West River was viewed in terms of its usefulness and its harmfulness to humans. West River was useful when settlers harvested salt hay; useful when the New Haven Water Company dammed the river to provide municipal water; and useful to mills and factories who relied upon a steady flow of fresh water. Settlers found West River useful to feed the oxen that would help remove trees and make the land suitable for agriculture; the forested areas across Connecticut were perceived as threatening, as evidenced by names the Europeans gave them: Hell Hollow and Devil’s Den. West River’s salt marshes were considered harmful as breeding grounds for mosquitoes, prompting the construction of the tidal gates that would prevent the influx of salt water from Long Island Sound. West River’s numerous wetlands occupied land that the city of New Haven preferred to see used for agriculture, then industry, streets, and parking lots, among other uses. And West River’s natural banks were seen as harmful when heavy rains caused flooding, leading the city and the Army Corps of Engineers to redirect and armor its path. Missing from the history of West River is action that would allow it to thrive as a diverse natural waterway.

Upper West River, in Bethany, Hamden, and Woodbridge, might have had less industrial uses, but dams were constructed over a century ago. The dams have been maintained by the Regional Water Authority, who operates water distribution to 12 towns in south central Connecticut. They chlorinate the water in five reservoirs, operating the West River Water Treatment Plant in Woodbridge, which has detailed risk management plans in place. The RWA does manage these reservoirs carefully with tight security around all of its facilities. As a service to area residents there are several recreational opportunities at RWA reservoirs, specifically Lake Bethany and Lake Chamberlain. Purchasers of a recreation permit ($20/person, $30/family) have access to Lake Bethany hiking trails and scenic lake views. Visitors to Lake Chamberlain in Bethany and Woodbridge can take advantage of hiking trails, fishing, and horseback riding. Click here to view information on recreational uses for Lake Bethany, including a brochure & trail map. The RWA has attempted to balance the water needs of New Haven County residents, the well-preserved natural beauty of the upper West River watershed and recreational access. The placement of dams has altered the flow of West River, and little record remains of the ecology of upper West River before flow interruption.[17]

Below the reservoirs, next to Konold’s Pond, is the “Woodbridge Commerce Park,” the former home of Lilly Industries. For five years in the 1990s Lilly was releasing ammonia and silver compounds into the air. Downriver from the industrial park is Westville, in which West River has supported dozens of mills and factories for over 150 years. Though many of these mills and factories no longer operate, the toxic metals and organics used in industry remain bound in the fine sediment.[18]

Further downriver, above West River Memorial Park are the Pilot Pen Tennis Center and Yale athletic fields. Within West River Memorial Park, a study by Nicholson tested the streambed for sediment metal contaminations. Nicholson found accumulations of copper, lead, zinc, and nickel to be significantly higher than would be expected by normal crustal weathering. Possible sources of these metals, Nicholson suggests, are from the heavily traveled roads that border West River Memorial Park: Route 34 to the north, Ella Grasso Blvd. to the east, and Route 1 to the south. Automobile tires are made with zinc and gasoline used to contain lead, while the presence of copper may be a result of sewage effluent discharges or historical use as a fungicide.[19]

Below West River Memorial Park are the tidal flood gates, which were supposed to have an effect on eradicating mosquitoes. In preventing tidal mixing, freshwater marsh lands have developed, supporting larger populations of mosquitoes and ticks and allowing the invasive phragmites australis, an aggressive reed grass. “Phragmites crowd out both plant and animal species and are poor habitat for most types of wildlife due to their density,” reports Bennett in a study on the restoration of the West River tidal salt marsh. Bennett explains that “past experiences have shown that the reintroduction of tidal flows to a degraded system will restore the site to a productive salt marsh.” This study also concludes that the viability of restoring 70 acres of degraded wetlands depends upon the public’s willingness to pay for the potential improvement of wildlife habitat. Winning over the public and the city must be a difficult task – the proposal was made in 1996 and the tidal gates remain. Further complicating the proposal is the riparian land owners, who may view a salt marsh as negatively impacting their business.[20]

Beyond the flood gates are several West Haven businesses, including a two scrap yards, and a Metro-North Railroad bridge. At the mouth of West River is the West Cove Marina from which boats travel under the Kimberly Avenue Bridge into Long Island Sound. West Cove Marina is the summer home of dozens of boats which can be point sources of lead from flaking paint, human garbage, oil, fuel, and sewage. Click here for a map of land use in the West River watershed.

In 2002, an EPA assessment of the West River made recommendations about the health of various sections for the purposes of activities: recreation; fish, shellfish, and wildlife propagation; aquatic life harvesting; and public water supply. Click the link for reports on West River watershed sections: Konold's Pond to Lake Bethany, From head of tide at Chapel St upstream (US) to Konold's Pond, Sargent River, Edgewood Park Pond, New Haven - Inner Harbor/Mill, Q & West Rivers. Generally, parts of West River upriver from Konold’s Pond are fully supported by the EPA for all activities assessed. In the segments below Konold’s Pond, the main problems cited by the EPA cause the agency not to support fish, shellfish, and wildlife propagation. Possible sources mentioned include hydromodifications, sedimentation, highway runoff, municipal & industrial discharge, combined sewer overflows, bacterial pathogens, nutrients, and algal blooms.[21][back to top]

6. Flora

phragmites australis
As important as many plant species are to West River, none have had quite the impact of phragmites australis, an invasive strain of the common reed that has replaced much of the native marsh grasses. Their high density prevents wildlife habitation. Phragmites cannot grow in areas of high salinity; installation of the tidal gates created prime conditions for this invader to thrive. Opening the tidal gates will raise the salinity of the West Haven and New Haven marshes, giving other species the opportunity to reclaim riparian space.[22]

Before New Haven filled the marshes and blocked salt water infiltration, common plants included saltwater cordgrass, and saltmeadow cordgrass, also known as salt hay (see Table 6.1 for a list of Common Flora with scientific names). Where some tidal mixing occurs and saltwater becomes slightly diluted, the brackish environment supports some cordgrass and other plant species such as goldenrod, silverweed, and a variety of sedges, rushes, and grasses. As salinity lowers, phragmites australis becomes predominant, along with cattail, and prairie cordgrass. Where freshwater marshes contain almost no salt, the area is still affected by tidal water levels and overrun by phragmites, but the other common plants are wild rice, pickerel weed, water lily, arrow arum, and jewel weed. In wooded areas near the marshes and into the upland regions the forest is mainly oak-hickory, offering several species of both oak and hickory trees; sugar and red maple trees and yellow poplar trees round out the common deciduous trees. Common coniferous trees include Eastern hemlock and Eastern white pine, with Eastern red cedar growing from rocky outcrops on West Rock Ridge. Found near Lake Bethany is the European larch, a coniferous tree that loses its needles. The most common shrubs are sweet pepperbush, pussy willow, and near the upland reservoirs are found yellow corydalis, wild columbine, and wild geranium, among others.[22][23][24]

In the marshes near the mouth of West River, the most common threats to flora are the takeover of invasive species like phragmites, the lack of nutrient exchange from salt water that cannot enter the ecosystem, and contaminated soil due to industry and urbanization. Upriver the flora has thrived due to protections by the towns of Bethany, Woodbridge, and Hamden, and the RWA. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut was clear-cut to provide land for farming and lumber for building and industry. As the area discontinued farming, many of the trees growing in RWA protected lands came back healthier and taller than those in the surrounding area.

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7. Fauna

Salt marsh restoration and the general health of an ecosystem is evidenced by a healthy population of benthic invertebrates. According to Cuomo and Zinn, who conducted a study on the populations of benthic organisms in lower West River, the presence of estuarine invertebrates in a freshwater system signifies the first level of succession necessary to restore a salt marsh. During their study, the researchers found malfunctioning flood gates and a regional drought, which inundated the lower West River with salt water. Where freshwater invertebrates such as chironomids, gastropods (snails), and bivalves were expected, estuarine invertebrates like polychaete worms, nematode worms, and tubiculous amphipods were found.[25]

The health of lower West River can be determined by the presence and quality of the fish population in the river. The tidal gates have altered the water quality directly by its salinity and indirectly by the type of plantlife that is encouraged. Water quality in West River near urbanized or industrial centers tends to be low due to sewer runoff, city runoff, and industrial waste. Excrement from resident waterfowl in raises the nutrient levels in ponds, causing algal blooms that lead to low dissolved oxygen levels. As such, fish populations in West River are sparse and the diversity is low. The most common species expected in West River include banded killifishes, mummichog, striped killifishes, white suckers, four-spined sticklebacks, and Atlantic silversides. Fish that use the estuarine environment for spawning include the alewife, blue-backed herring, bluegill, and carp. Using the estuarine environment for nursing juveniles are Atlantic silversides and winter flounder. Upstream fishes include brook trout, chain pickerel, spottail shiner, golden shiner, brown bullhead catfish, tessellated darter, and largemouth bass. During a study of fish in West River Watershed, Moore et. al. found the fish sampled to be indicative of overall river quality. The fish sampled in their study, from 1995-1996 contained individuals with excessive parasites, tumors, ulcers, and fin erosion, suggesting physiological stress due to poor water quality.[26]

Concern about the health of West River Watershed is partly focused on its importance as habitat for migrating and nesting birds. According to the Connecticut Audubon Society, West Rock Ridge alone is either a full time or temporary home to over 225 species of birds. These birds rely on the animals and plants that use West River to survive. Due to environmental degradation and loss of habitat, diversity of species is much lower in urbanized sections of West River than areas with less human impact. Common and rare birds recorded in West Rock Park (including Konold’s Pond and Lake Wintergreen) include thrushes, turkey, ruffed-grouse, nesting turkey vulture, red-tailed hawk, great horned owl, pileated woodpecker, osprey, and bald eagle. Migrating shorebirds and wintering gulls take refuge near Konold’s Pond, along with pied-billed grebe, snow goose, American and Eurasian Wigeon, ring-necked duck, mallard, common and hooded merganser, gulls, tern, and sandpipers. Nesting birds include several duck species, mute swan, common moorhen, Eastern Kingbird, Eastern phoebe, warbling vireo, and Baltimore oriole. Other birds spotted in the area include warblers, green heron, grackle, whip-poor-will; great blue heron and great egret feed along the shores of West River.[27][28]

Within West River and the forests surrounding the river are numerous reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, that all rely on the river for food, shelter, and water. West River supports a diversity of turtle species, including Eastern painted turtle, common snapping-turtle, musk turtle, wood turtle, and spotted turtle. Numerous salamander species, frogs, and toads can be found, including the Eastern American toad, gray treefrog, Northern spring peeper, bullfrog, green frog, and pickerel frog. A variety of mammals feed and obtain water along West River, including the river otter, white-tailed deer, weasel species, chipmunk, raccoons, flying squirrel, skunks, and meadow voles. On ridge tops coyote, red and gray fox are also common.[28]

The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has issued maps of the towns in Connecticut with locations of sensitive wildlife areas. “Each town map identifies general areas of concern with regard to state and federally listed endangered, threatened, and special concern species and significant natural communities.” DEP maps of Bethany and New Haven overlap to include all of the West River Watershed. The maps are designed so parties with an interest in development in Connecticut can determine if their project would affect any listed species. The DEP Website offers a list of endangered, threatened, and special concern flora and fauna in New Haven County.[29]

8. Field Studies & Lesson Plans

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9. Technical Writings

Restoration of an Urban Salt Marsh: An Interdisciplinary Approach
1997 study by David Cassagrande of Yale F&ES School detailing the social, ecological, hydrological and biological aspects of restoration of the West River salt marsh.
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10. Personal Stories

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11. Community Groups

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12. Recreation

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13. Related Links

Barnard Elementary School - 170 Derby Ave., New Haven, CT 06511 - 203.691.3500
From their School Philosophy: "Outdoor education is heavily utilized to develop skills that students will have for a lifetime. A bridge over Ella Grasso Boulevard leading to our own nature center extends our classrooms to the West River environment where students canoe, conduct field studies, and develop an appreciation for their natural environment. Our students will become environmental stewards for their planet."

Foote School - 50 Loomis Place, New Haven, CT 06511 - 203.777.3464
From their biology curriculum: "Using the West River as a living laboratory, students begin the year with a study of the land use in the vicinity of the river. Topographic maps, Google Earth software, and site visits are used to assess potential and actual human impacts on water quality. Student teams carry out physical, chemical and biological sampling at selected sites on the river and New Haven Harbor (including a half day trip aboard Schooner Inc.’s Quinnipiac)."
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14. Notes/Sources

1. Schiff, Roy. West River Watershed GIS Analysis. [Yale University Center for Coastal and Watershed Systems School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.] March 2000. Connecticut DEP, EPA Region 1. §319 Project 97-06, Task 2.
2. “Supply and Facilities.” March 22, 2002. South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority. June 25, 2006. http://www.rwater.com/index.shtml
3.Official Connecticut Tourism Map. Connecticut Department of Transportation. 1998-1999.
4. Alter, Lisa. “Geology of Connecticut.” May 1, 1995. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. June 25, 2006. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1995/5/95.05.01.x.html
5. Bell, Michael. The Face of Connecticut. Hartford: State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, 1985.
6. Rodgers, John. “Bedrock Geologic Map of Connecticut.” Yale University for U.S. Geologic Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1985.
7. Kinder, Carolyn. “The Geology of West River.” June 6, 1984. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. June 25, 2006. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1984/6/84.06.06.x.html
8. Kenny, William L. “Summary statistics of rainfall in inches from Lake Dawson rain gauge 1932-1995, West River Watershed.” Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. HY-W-100. 1995.
9. “Divisional Normals and Standard Deviations of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971 – 2000 (and previous normals periods)” Climatography of the United States No. 85. U.S. Department of Commerce.
10. Triana, John. Personal e-mail. “RE: Rules and Regulations;Special Permit Application” June 28, 2006.
11. “Discharge at Partial-Record Stations and Miscellaneous Sites: West River Basin.” 1983-1987. Connecticut Water Science Center, USGS. June 28, 2006
12. Casagrande, David G. “The Full Circle: An Historical Context for Urban Salt Marsh Restoration.” Bulletin Series: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Number 100. Yale University, 1997.
13. Polino, Valerie. “The Life and Times of the West River 1776-1896: A Study of Early Industry in Westville.” June 9, 1984. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. July 3, 2006. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1984/6/84.06.09.x.html
14. Brinton, William L. ed. “Facts About Bethany.” Bethany Historical Society. July 3, 2006 http://www.munic.state.ct.us/bethany/historicalSociety/bhs-facts.htm
15. “The Family: Eli Whitney, Jr.” The Eli Whitney Museum. July 3, 2006 http://www.eliwhitney.org/family.htm
16. McCluskey, Dorothy S. and Bennitt, Claire C. “Partnerships Protect Watersheds: The Case of the New Haven Water Company.” Land Lines Newsletter. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy . January 1997: 9 (1). http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/pub-detail.asp?id=494
17. “Recreation.” January 10, 2005. South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority. June 25, 2006. http://www.rwater.com/recreation/index.shtml
18. Facility Report (TRI data): Lilly Industries, Inc. November 10, 2005, Right-To-Know Network. June 26, 2006. http://www.rtknet.org/new/tri/fac.php
19. Nicholson, Robert O. “Sediment Metal Contamination at the West River Memorial Park, New Haven.” Harry O. Haakonsen Memorial Research Fellowship, Southern CT State University: May, 2002.
20. Bennett, Lynne L. and Udziela, Matthew K. “Economic Considerations of the Restoration of a Tidal Salt Marsh: The Case of the West River.” Bulletin Series: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Number 100. Yale University, 1997.
21. “305(b) Lists/Assessment Unit Information Report” Assessment Data for Connecticut, Quinnipiac Watershed, Year 2002. 2002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. June 27, 2006. http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl/w305b_report_v2.huc?p_huc=01100004&p_state=CT
22. Orson, Richard A., et. al. “Ecological Context and Vegetation Restoration.” Bulletin Series: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Number 100. Yale University, 1997
23. Broker, Stephen P. “West Rock Ridge Vernal Pool, Hamden, Connecticut.” May 3, 1995. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. July 3, 2006. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1985/5/95.05.03.x.html
24. “Trees.” 2004. NC State University, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, July 4, 2006. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/trees-new/common_namesa_c.html
25. Cuomo, Carmela and Zinn, Gabriele. “Benthic Invertebrates of the Lower West River.” Bulletin Series: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Number 100. Yale University, 1997.
26. Moore, Jon A., et. al. “Fish Communities as Indicators of Environmental Quality in the West River Watershed.” Bulletin Series: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Number 100. Yale University, 1997
27. Comins, Patrick. “Important Bird Areas In Connecticut Nomination Form.” Connecticut Audubon Society. Via e-mail. June 19, 2006.
28. Broker, Steve. Personal e-mail. “RE: West River” June 20, 2006.
29. “Protecting Our Environment.” December, 2005. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. July 2, 2006 http://dep.state.ct.us/ourenvir.htm

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